(From 45 CFR 46.117) (a) Informed consent shall be documented by the use of a written consent form approved by CUHSR and signed (including in an electronic format) by the subject or the subject’s legally authorized representative. A copy shall be given to the person signing the form. See forms for a model consent form.
(b) The informed consent form may be either of the following:
A written informed consent form that meets the requirements of §46.116. The investigator shall give either the subject or the subject's legally authorized representative adequate opportunity to read the informed consent form before it is signed; alternatively, this form may be read to the subject or the subject's legally authorized representative.
A short form written informed consent form stating that the elements of informed consent required by §46.116 have been presented orally to the subject or the subject's legally authorized representative, and that the key information required by §46.116(a)(5)(i) was presented first to the subject, before other information, if any, was provided. The IRB shall approve a written summary of what is to be said to the subject or the legally authorized representative. When this method is used, there shall be a witness to the oral presentation. Only the short form itself is to be signed by the subject or the subject's legally authorized representative. However, the witness shall sign both the short form and a copy of the summary, and the person actually obtaining consent shall sign a copy of the summary. A copy of the summary shall be given to the subject or the subject's legally authorized representative, in addition to a copy of the short form.
(c)(1) An IRB may waive the requirement for the investigator to obtain a signed informed consent form for some or all subjects if it finds any of the following:
That the only record linking the subject and the research would be the informed consent form and the principal risk would be potential harm resulting from a breach of confidentiality. Each subject (or legally authorized representative) will be asked whether the subject wants documentation linking the subject with the research, and the subject's wishes will govern;
That the research presents no more than minimal risk of harm to subjects and involves no procedures for which written consent is normally required outside of the research context; or
If the subjects or legally authorized representatives are members of a distinct cultural group or community in which signing forms is not the norm, that the research presents no more than minimal risk of harm to subjects and provided there is an appropriate alternative mechanism for documenting that informed consent was obtained.
(2) In cases in which the documentation requirement is waived, the IRB may require the investigator to provide subjects or legally authorized representatives with a written statement regarding the research.
If investigators are not obtaining a signature, then a waiver with a rationale must be requested on the application. Electronic signatures are those that legally verifiable. “Click if you Agree” is a good practice, but does not constitute a signature.